Cross VM Calls

Each VM operates independently, and messaging between them is facilitated by the sequencer. At a high level, each VM has its own contract, which serves a similar function. These contracts emit an "event" containing the call data and the sender's information, which is then executed on the target VM.

For Solana VM, a program is deployed; for Move VM, a module is included in the standard framework; and for EVM, a smart contract is used. All are deployed on the chain. Essentially, a developer only needs to query a specific function to send a message to another virtual machine, similar to how it's done in LayerZero, but within the same execution environment.

Example of a loan/trade from EVM to Move VM:

  1. Loan USDC for ETH on AAVE.

  2. Transfer USDC to Move VM.

  3. Sell USDC for ETH on Liquidswap.

  4. Return ETH to close the loan.

If we simplify the logic, it can be represented as follows:

Calls can essentially follow the same path back, allowing for the transfer of results or assets back to the initial contract.

Let's delve deeper into the implementation of cross-VM calls between Move VM and EVM:

  1. Move VM Implementation:

    1. Implemented as a native function to streamline the serialization process.

    2. As part of default framework.

    3. Data is passed as objects, and serialization/deserialization is managed.

At a high level, both contracts, implemented on each VM, serve a similar purpose. They emit an "event" containing the call data and the sender's information, which is then executed on the target VM.

/// EVM Communication Module
/// This module enables the execution of smart contracts within the EVM-compatible layer of the Layer 2 (L2) infrastructure.
/// Designed as a key component of our L2 solution, this module facilitates seamless interaction with the EVM ecosystem.
/// It acts as a bridge, allowing users and other smart contracts to initiate and execute smart contract functions
/// that reside on the EVM side of the L2 platform. This integration ensures compatibility and extends
/// the functionality of L2 solutions within the diverse Ethereum ecosystem.
module framework::evm {
    /// Facilitates the execution of a function in an EVM contract from within the current VM environment.
    /// This native function signals the VM to initiate a call to a specified contract in the EVM layer.
    /// It's an integral part of cross-VM communication, enabling interoperability between different blockchain protocols.
    ///  * `account`: The sender's account, which will be used for authorization and executing the call on the EVM side.
    ///  * `to`: The target EVM contract's address to which the call is directed.
    ///  * `fn_abi`: The ABI signature of the function to be called in the EVM contract, for example, `transfer(address,u256)`.
    ///  * `calldata`: The arguments to be passed to the function. This can be a single primitive type or multiple parameters packed in an object.
    native fun evm<T>(account: &signer, to: address, fn_abi: vector<u8>, calldata: &T);
  1. EVM implementation

In the EVM part of the genesis block and deployed on the address, similar functionalities are achieved, but with a focus on utilizing events for efficient cross-VM communication.

// SPDX-License-Identifier: UNLICENSED
pragma solidity ^0.8.13;

import {IMoveVM} from "src/interfaces/IMoveVM.sol";

/// @title MoveVM
/// @notice This contract implements the cross-VM messaging protocol within the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) environment.
contract MoveVM is IMoveVM {
    /// @notice Executes a call to a specified virtual machine (Move VM), targeting a specific module and function.
    ///         The `msg.sender` is used as the initiator of the call.
    ///         Emits a communication event to facilitate interaction between EVM and MoveVM.
    /// @dev This function facilitates interaction between Solidity contracts and modules deployed in a Move VM.
    ///      It encodes the call data for compatibility with Move VM standards and handles the complexities
    ///      of cross-VM communications.
    /// @param _moduleAddress The hexadecimal address of the module in the Move VM to which the call is directed.
    ///                       Example: `0x1` for a core module in Move VM.
    /// @param _moduleId The identifier of the module within the Move VM. For instance, `coin` for a module handling
    ///                  cryptocurrency operations.
    /// @param _functionId The identifier of the function within the specified module to be called, e.g. `transfer`.
    /// @param _callData ABI-encoded data to be passed to the function. This data should be formatted according
    ///                  to the requirements of the target function and should only include supported primitive types.
    /// @param _generics A list of fully qualified paths of any generics involved in the function call.
    ///                  Use the format `module_path::module_name::GenericType` for single generics.
    ///                  For multiple generics, separate them with commas and detail nested generics where necessary.
    function call(
        bytes calldata _moduleAddress,
        bytes calldata _moduleId,
        bytes calldata _functionId,
        bytes calldata _callData,
        bytes calldata _generics
    ) external {
        emit Call(msg.sender, _moduleAddress, _moduleId, _functionId, _callData, _generics);

Concurrency Note

Multiple calls can be queued sequentially; however, execution on the target VM commences only after the current runtime completes. This process isn't fully synchronous, but enhancing this aspect is a priority for future updates. Calls are executed in a sequencer, one after another, following the order in which they were initiated.

Last updated